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In this page talks about ( Zhong Hui's Rebellion ) It was sent to us on 27/07/2021 and was presented on 27/07/2021 and the last update on this page on 27/07/2021 Zhong Hui's Rebellion
was a rebellion in March 264 led by Zhong Hui, a general of the state of Cao Wei, against the Wei regent, Sima Zhao. Zhong Hui had support from Jiang Wei, a general from the former state of Shu Han, which was conquered by Wei forces just before the rebellion started. Zhong Hui, as one of the Wei commanders in the Conquest of Shu by Wei, had considered himself capable enough to overcome the Wei regime and establish his own kingdom in the newly conquered Shu territory.Alan Kam-Leung Chan, National University of Singapore. http://www.iep.utm.edu/zhonghui/#H1 The rebellion ended when some Wei officers and soldiers, who were unwilling to join Zhong Hui, started a mutiny against him and killed him and Jiang Wei.
Initially, when Sima Zhao wanted to put Zhong Hui in charge of leading the Wei army to conquer Shu, Shao Ti warned him that Zhong Hui might rebel against Wei because he was in command of an army of thousands, was single, and had no family to worry about. Sima Zhao laughed and said he understood Shao Ti's concern very well, but chose to let Zhong Hui lead the Wei army because he had faith in Zhong's ability to conquer Shu. He also predicted that Zhong Hui would not succeed even if he rebelled because of two reasons. First, the people of Shu would be fearful after seeing how their state had been conquered, and hence would not help Zhong Hui. Second, the Wei forces would be exhausted after the campaign and want to return home, so they would not support Zhong.(åˆï¼Œæ–‡çŽ‹æ¬²é£æœƒä¼èœ€ï¼Œè¥¿æ›¹å±¬é‚µæ‚Œæ±‚è¦‹æ›°ï¼šã€Œä»Šé£é¾æœƒçŽ‡åé¤˜è¬è¡†ä¼èœ€ï¼Œæ„šè¬‚æœƒå–®èº«ç„¡é‡ä»»ï¼Œä¸è‹¥ä½¿é¤˜äººè¡Œã€‚ã€æ–‡çŽ‹ç¬‘æ›°ï¼šã€Œæˆ‘å¯§ç•¶å¾©ä¸çŸ¥æ¤è€¶ï¼Ÿèœ€ç‚ºå¤©ä¸‹ä½œæ‚£ï¼Œä½¿æ°‘ä¸å¾—å®‰æ¯ï¼Œæˆ‘ä»Šä¼ä¹‹å¦‚æŒ‡æŽŒè€³ï¼Œè€Œè¡†äººçš†è¨€èœ€ä¸å¯ä¼ã€‚å¤«äººå¿ƒè±«æ€¯å‰‡æ™ºå‹‡ä¸¦ç«ï¼Œæ™ºå‹‡ä¸¦ç«è€Œå½Šä½¿ä¹‹ï¼Œé©ç‚ºæ•µç¦½è€³ã€‚æƒŸé¾æœƒèˆ‡äººæ„åŒï¼Œä»Šé£æœƒä¼èœ€ï¼Œå¿…å¯æ»…èœ€ã€‚æ»…èœ€ä¹‹å¾Œï¼Œå°±å¦‚å¿æ‰€æ…®ï¼Œç•¶ä½•æ‰€èƒ½ä¸€è¾¦è€¶ï¼Ÿå‡¡æ•—è»ä¹‹å°‡ä¸å¯ä»¥èªžå‹‡ï¼Œäº¡åœ‹ä¹‹å¤§å¤«ä¸å¯èˆ‡åœ–å˜ï¼Œå¿ƒè†½ä»¥ç ´æ•…ä¹Ÿã€‚è‹¥èœ€ä»¥ç ´ï¼Œéºæ°‘éœ‡æï¼Œä¸è¶³èˆ‡åœ–äº‹ï¼›ä¸åœ‹å°‡å£«å„è‡ªæ€æ¸ï¼Œä¸è‚¯èˆ‡åŒä¹Ÿã€‚è‹¥ä½œæƒ¡ï¼Œç¥—è‡ªæ»…æ—è€³ã€‚å¿ä¸é ˆæ†‚æ¤ï¼Œæ…ŽèŽ«ä½¿äººèžä¹Ÿã€‚ã€)
Both Deng Ai and Zhong Hui had taken part in the Conquest of Shu in 263, having acted as foils to each other during the invasion â€“ where Zhong Hui had demanded an advance through Jiange, Deng Ai had instead chosen to move through Yinping. Jiang Wei, having been surprised from Zhong Hui's eastern offensive, moved all troops from Yinping to halt Zhong Hui's advance. As a result, Deng Ai's advance through Yinping was swift enough to allow him to quickly reach Chengdu and demand Liu Shan's surrender.
In the following occupation of the Shu territory, Deng Ai began issuing orders in Chengdu an autocratic fashion, while Zhong Hui began exhibiting signs of hubris, believing himself to no longer be capable of serving under another. Jiang Wei, by contrast, liaised with Liu Shan, outlining a plan to trick Zhong Hui into rebellion, weakening Wei troops, before killing Zhong and seizing power of the troops while re-declaring Shu's independence.
Zhong Hui's first course of action was to falsify letters proving a purported plan by Deng Ai to rebel, creating distrust between Sima Zhao and Deng Ai; this was supplemented by Deng Ai's own growing arrogance in his correspondence with Sima. Zhong Hui, skilled in forgery, secretly intercepted and edited a report from Deng Ai to the Wei imperial court to exaggerate Deng Ai's arrogance, while simultaneously submitting a report of his own to express suspicion of Deng Ai; he also destroyed a letter from Sima Zhao to Deng Ai in a further effort to alienate the latter.(ä¸–èªžæ›°ï¼šæœƒå–„æ•ˆäººæ›¸ï¼Œæ–¼åŠ’é–£è¦è‰¾ç« è¡¨ç™½äº‹ï¼Œçš†æ˜“å…¶è¨€ï¼Œä»¤è¾æŒ‡æ‚–å‚²ï¼Œå¤šè‡ªçŸœä¼ã€‚åˆæ¯€æ–‡çŽ‹å ±æ›¸ï¼Œæ‰‹ä½œä»¥ç–‘ä¹‹ä¹Ÿã€‚)
In early 264, Sima Zhao issued an edict eneoffing Zhong Hui as Minister of the Interior and ordering Zhong Hui to capture Deng Ai to be brought to the Wei capital, Luoyang, to account for his conduct. Wei Guan was ordered to arrest Deng Ai and his son Deng Zhong on Zhong Hui's command. Zhong Hui hoped that Wei Guan would be killed doing this, which would strongly back up the false accusations against Deng Ai; however, Wei Guan surprised Deng Ai in the night after Deng Ai's troops laid down their arms in deference to Sima Zhao's edict; Deng Ai was successfully captured, after which he was imprisoned in a cart.(æœƒå…§æœ‰ç•°å¿—ï¼Œå› é„§è‰¾æ‰¿åˆ¶å°ˆäº‹ï¼Œå¯†ç™½è‰¾æœ‰åç‹€ï¼Œæ–¼æ˜¯è©”æ›¸æª»è»Šå¾µè‰¾ã€‚å¸é¦¬æ–‡çŽ‹æ‡¼è‰¾æˆ–ä¸å¾žå‘½ï¼Œå‹‘æœƒä¸¦é€²è»æˆéƒ½ï¼Œç›£è»è¡žç“˜åœ¨æœƒå‰è¡Œï¼Œä»¥æ–‡çŽ‹æ‰‹ç†ä»¤å®£å–»è‰¾è»ï¼Œè‰¾è»çš†é‡‹ä»—ï¼Œé‚æ”¶è‰¾å…¥æª»è»Šã€‚)
However, at the same time, Sima Zhao personally led an army out of the Luoyang with Jia Chong towards Chengdu. As Sima Zhao moved to lead his forces to station at Chang'an, Shao Ti told Sima that there was no need for him to go to Chang'an because Zhong Hui was capable of arresting Deng Ai on his own since he had five to six times more troops than Deng. Sima Zhao replied, "Have you forgotten what you said previously? Why are you asking me not to go now? Please keep secret what we spoke about. I treat people with trust and respect. As long as they remain loyal to me, I will not doubt them. Jia Chong recently asked me, 'Are you suspicious of Zhong Hui?' I replied, 'If I send you on a mission today, do you think I doubt you?' He could not respond to my reply. Everything will be settled when I arrive in Chang'an."(åŠæœƒç™½é„§è‰¾ä¸è»Œï¼Œæ–‡çŽ‹å°‡è¥¿ï¼Œæ‚Œå¾©æ›°ï¼šã€Œé¾æœƒæ‰€çµ±ï¼Œäº”å…å€æ–¼é„§è‰¾ï¼Œä½†å¯å‹‘æœƒå–è‰¾ï¼Œä¸è¶³è‡ªè¡Œã€‚ã€æ–‡çŽ‹æ›°ï¼šã€Œå¿å¿˜å‰æ™‚æ‰€è¨€é‚ªï¼Œè€Œæ›´äº‘å¯ä¸é ˆè¡Œä¹Žï¼Ÿé›–çˆ¾ï¼Œæ¤è¨€ä¸å¯å®£ä¹Ÿã€‚æˆ‘è¦è‡ªç•¶ä»¥ä¿¡ç¾©å¾…äººï¼Œä½†äººä¸ç•¶è² æˆ‘ï¼Œæˆ‘è±ˆå¯å…ˆäººç”Ÿå¿ƒå“‰ï¼è¿‘æ—¥è³ˆè·è»å•æˆ‘ï¼Œè¨€ï¼šã€Žé —ç–‘é¾æœƒä¸ï¼Ÿã€æˆ‘è…è¨€ï¼šã€Žå¦‚ä»Šé£å¿è¡Œï¼Œå¯§å¯å¾©ç–‘å¿é‚ªï¼Ÿã€è³ˆäº¦ç„¡ä»¥æ˜“æˆ‘èªžä¹Ÿã€‚æˆ‘åˆ°é•·å®‰ï¼Œå‰‡è‡ªäº†çŸ£ã€‚ã€è»è‡³é•·å®‰ï¼Œæœƒæžœå·²æ»ï¼Œå’¸å¦‚æ‰€ç–ã€‚)
Zhong Hui immediately became acting commander of Wei forces in the former Shu territory, at which point his hubris reached its height. Zhong Hui outlined a plan to capture Luoyang:
Jiang Wei would lead a vanguard force out of the Xie Valley (æ–œè°·) to attack the city of Chang'an. Zhong Hui would follow behind with the main army and provide support.
After capturing Chang'an, the army would be split into two groups â€“ infantry and cavalry. The infantry would sail along the Wei and Yellow rivers towards Meng Ford (åŸæ´¥) near Luoyang while the cavalry would ride towards Luoyang on land. Zhong Hui estimated that the journey would take five days.
The infantry and cavalry would rendezvous outside Luoyang and attack the city together.(æœƒæ‰€æ†šæƒŸè‰¾ï¼Œè‰¾æ—£ç¦½è€Œæœƒå°‹è‡³ï¼Œç¨çµ±å¤§è¡†ï¼Œå¨éœ‡è¥¿åœŸã€‚è‡ªè¬‚åŠŸåè“‹ä¸–ï¼Œä¸å¯å¾©ç‚ºäººä¸‹ï¼ŒåŠ çŒ›å°‡éŠ³å’çš†åœ¨å·±æ‰‹ï¼Œé‚è¬€åã€‚æ¬²ä½¿å§œç¶ç‰çš†å°‡èœ€å…µå‡ºæ–œè°·ï¼Œæœƒè‡ªå°‡å¤§è¡†éš¨å…¶å¾Œã€‚æ—£è‡³é•·å®‰ï¼Œä»¤é¨Žå£«å¾žé™¸é“ï¼Œæ¥å…µå¾žæ°´é“é †æµæµ®æ¸å…¥æ²³ï¼Œä»¥ç‚ºäº”æ—¥å¯åˆ°åŸæ´¥ï¼Œèˆ‡é¨Žæœƒæ´›é™½ï¼Œä¸€æ—¦å¤©ä¸‹å¯å®šä¹Ÿã€‚)
Sanguozhi vol. 28. The rebellion
Zhong Hui received a letter from Sima Zhao, which read: "I fear Deng Ai might not submit. I have ordered Jia Chong to lead 10,000 infantry and cavalry into the Xie Valley and station at Yuecheng. I will lead 100,000 troops to garrison at Chang'an. We will be meeting each other soon." After reading the letter, Zhong Hui was shocked and he told his close aides, "When His Excellency ordered me to arrest Deng Ai, he knew I was capable of accomplishing the task alone. However, now, since he has brought his troops here, he must be suspecting me. We should take action quickly. If we succeed, the Empire is ours. If we fail, we can retreat back to Shu Han and do as Liu Bei did before us. It is widely known that my plans have never failed once since the Shouchun rebellions. How can I be content with such fame?"(æœƒå¾—æ–‡çŽ‹æ›¸äº‘ï¼šã€Œæé„§è‰¾æˆ–ä¸å°±å¾µï¼Œä»Šé£ä¸è·è»è³ˆå……å°‡æ¥é¨Žè¬äººå¾‘å…¥æ–œè°·ï¼Œå±¯æ¨‚åŸŽï¼Œå¾è‡ªå°‡åè¬å±¯é•·å®‰ï¼Œç›¸è¦‹åœ¨è¿‘ã€‚ã€æœƒå¾—æ›¸ï¼Œé©šå‘¼æ‰€è¦ªèªžä¹‹æ›°ï¼šã€Œä½†å–é„§è‰¾ï¼Œç›¸åœ‹çŸ¥æˆ‘èƒ½ç¨è¾¦ä¹‹ï¼›ä»Šä¾†å¤§é‡ï¼Œå¿…è¦ºæˆ‘ç•°çŸ£ï¼Œä¾¿ç•¶é€Ÿç™¼ã€‚äº‹æˆï¼Œå¯å¾—å¤©ä¸‹ï¼›ä¸æˆï¼Œé€€ä¿èœ€æ¼¢ï¼Œä¸å¤±ä½œåŠ‰å‚™ä¹Ÿã€‚æˆ‘è‡ªæ·®å—ä»¥ä¾†ï¼Œç•«ç„¡é£ç–ï¼Œå››æµ·æ‰€å…±çŸ¥ä¹Ÿã€‚æˆ‘æ¬²æŒæ¤å®‰æ¸ä¹Žï¼ã€)
vol. 28. Having heard this news, Zhong Hui then openly declared his rebellion with the likes of Jiang Wei as Zhong Hui's chief general.
Zhong Hui arrived in Chengdu on 29 February 264. The following day, he summoned all the high-ranking officers and former Shu officers to the old Shu imperial court in the name of holding a memorial service for the recently deceased Empress Dowager Guo. During the service, he showed them a forgery he had made of an imperial decree claiming to have been issued by the empress dowager before her death. In the decree, Empress Dowager Guo wanted all those who were loyal to Wei to rise up against Sima Zhao and remove him from power. Zhong Hui sought the officers' opinions, asked them to sign on a list if they agreed to carry out the empress dowager's dying wish, and then instructed his close aides to take over command of the various military units. He then had all the officers detained in their respective offices with the doors shut, and ordered the gates of the city to be closed and tightly guarded.(æœƒä»¥äº”å¹´æ£æœˆåäº”æ—¥è‡³ï¼Œå…¶æ˜Žæ—¥ï¼Œæ‚‰è«‹è·è»ã€éƒ¡å®ˆã€ç‰™é–€é¨Žç£ä»¥ä¸ŠåŠèœ€ä¹‹æ•…å®˜ï¼Œç‚ºå¤ªåŽç™¼å–ªæ–¼èœ€æœå ‚ã€‚çŸ¯å¤ªåŽéºè©”ï¼Œä½¿æœƒèµ·å…µå»¢æ–‡çŽ‹ï¼Œçš†çç¤ºåä¸Šäººï¼Œä½¿ä¸‹è°è¨–ï¼Œæ›¸ç‰ˆç½²ç½®ï¼Œæ›´ä½¿æ‰€è¦ªä¿¡ä»£é ˜è«¸è»ã€‚æ‰€è«‹ç¾¤å®˜ï¼Œæ‚‰é–‰è‘—ç›Šå·žè«¸æ›¹å±‹ä¸ï¼ŒåŸŽé–€å®®é–€çš†é–‰ï¼Œåš´å…µåœå®ˆã€‚)
One of Zhong Hui's officers was Qiu Jian (ä¸˜å»º), a former subordinate of the officer Hu Lie, who had recommended Qiu Jian to Sima Zhao. Zhong Hui favoured and regarded Qiu Jian highly and requested for him to be transferred to his unit. Qiu Jian sympathised with Hu Lie, who was detained alone inside a room, so he approached Zhong Hui and said that each of the detained officers should have a servant to attend to their personal needs, to which Zhong Hui agreed. Hu Lie lied to his servant and wrote a letter to his sons, in which he claimed he heard from Qiu Jian that Zhong Hui was planning to purge the officers not from his own unit by luring them into a trap and killing them. The rumour spread like wildfire among all the detained officers. When Zhong Hui's men received news about the rumour, they suggested to their superior to execute all the officers holding the rank of "Cavalry Commandant of the Standard" (ç‰™é–€é¨Žç£) and above and absorb the troops from Deng Ai's officers into the rebel forces. Jiang Wei particularly supported this, a personal ploy to weaken the Wei forces preceding a resurrection of the Shu state, and Zhong Hui, though doubtful, agreed to the plan.(æœƒå¸³ä¸‹ç£ä¸˜å»ºæœ¬å±¬èƒ¡çƒˆï¼Œçƒˆè–¦ä¹‹æ–‡çŽ‹ï¼Œæœƒè«‹ä»¥è‡ªéš¨ï¼Œä»»æ„›ä¹‹ã€‚å»ºæ„çƒˆç¨åï¼Œå•Ÿæœƒï¼Œä½¿è½å…§ä¸€è¦ªå…µå‡ºå–é£²é£Ÿï¼Œè«¸ç‰™é–€éš¨ä¾‹å„å…§ä¸€äººã€‚çƒˆç´¿èªžè¦ªå…µåŠç–èˆ‡å…¶åæ›°ï¼šã€Œä¸˜å»ºå¯†èªªæ¶ˆæ¯ï¼Œæœƒå·²ä½œå¤§å‘ï¼Œç™½æ£“æ•¸åƒï¼Œæ¬²æ‚‰å‘¼å¤–å…µå…¥ï¼Œäººè³œç™½ã¡Šï¼Œæ‹œç‚ºæ•£å°‡ï¼Œä»¥æ¬¡æ£“æ®ºå‘ä¸ã€‚ã€è«¸ç‰™é–€è¦ªå…µäº¦å’¸èªªæ¤èªžï¼Œä¸€å¤œå‚³ç›¸å‘Šï¼Œçš†å¾§ã€‚æˆ–è¬‚æœƒï¼šã€Œå¯ç›¡æ®ºç‰™é–€é¨Žç£ä»¥ä¸Šã€‚ã€æœƒçŒ¶è±«æœªæ±ºã€‚)
Around noon on 3 March 264, Hu Lie's son Hu Yuan, his siblings, and his father's subordinates started beating the drums and their soldiers followed suit. After that, they rushed towards the city gates in a disorderly manner because they had no one to lead them. Wei Guan and Qiu Jian joined the uprising against Zhong Hui. Around the time, Jiang Wei was collecting his armour and weapons from Zhong Hui when they heard shouting and received news that a fire had broken out. Moments later, it was reported that many soldiers were crowding near the city gates. Zhong Hui was surprised and he asked Jiang Wei, "Those men are causing trouble. What should we do?" Jiang Wei replied, "Kill them." Zhong Hui then ordered his men to kill the officers who were still detained in their offices. Some of the officers used pieces of furniture to block the doors. Zhong Hui's men rammed the doors but could not force them open. A while later, there were reports of people climbing up the city gates on ladders and of people setting fire to buildings. Chaos broke out and arrows were fired in all directions. The detained officers broke out of captivity, regrouped with their men, and attacked Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei. Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei fought the mutinying soldiers and slew about five or six of them, but were eventually overwhelmed and killed by them. Zhong Hui was 40 years old (by East Asian age reckoning) when he died. Hundreds of lives were lost in the mutiny.(åå…«æ—¥æ—¥ä¸ï¼Œçƒˆè»å…µèˆ‡çƒˆå…’é›·é¼“å‡ºé–€ï¼Œè«¸è»å…µä¸æœŸçš†é¼“èŸå‡ºï¼Œæ›¾ç„¡ç£ä¿ƒä¹‹è€…ï¼Œè€Œçˆå…ˆèµ´åŸŽã€‚æ™‚æ–¹çµ¦èˆ‡å§œç¶éŽ§æ–ï¼Œç™½å¤–æœ‰åŒˆåŒˆè²ï¼Œä¼¼å¤±ç«ï¼Œæœ‰é ƒï¼Œç™½å…µèµ°å‘åŸŽã€‚æœƒé©šï¼Œè¬‚ç¶æ›°ï¼šã€Œå…µä¾†ä¼¼æ¬²ä½œæƒ¡ï¼Œç•¶äº‘ä½•ï¼Ÿã€ç¶æ›°ï¼šã€Œä½†ç•¶æ“Šä¹‹è€³ã€‚ã€æœƒé£å…µæ‚‰æ®ºæ‰€é–‰è«¸ç‰™é–€éƒ¡å®ˆï¼Œå…§äººå…±èˆ‰æœºä»¥æŸ±é–€ï¼Œå…µæ–«é–€ï¼Œä¸èƒ½ç ´ã€‚æ–¯é ˆï¼Œé–€å¤–å€šæ¢¯ç™»åŸŽï¼Œæˆ–ç‡’åŸŽå±‹ï¼ŒèŸ»é™„äº‚é€²ï¼ŒçŸ¢ä¸‹å¦‚é›¨ï¼Œç‰™é–€ã€éƒ¡å®ˆå„ç·£å±‹å‡ºï¼Œèˆ‡å…¶å’å…µç›¸å¾—ã€‚å§œç¶çŽ‡æœƒå·¦å³æˆ°ï¼Œæ‰‹æ®ºäº”å…äººï¼Œè¡†æ—£æ ¼æ–¬ç¶ï¼Œçˆèµ´æ®ºæœƒã€‚æœƒæ™‚å¹´å››åï¼Œå°‡å£«æ»è€…æ•¸ç™¾äººã€‚)
By the time Sima Zhao reached Chang'an, Zhong Hui had already been killed in the mutiny, just as Sima Zhao foresaw.(åŠæœƒç™½é„§è‰¾ä¸è»Œï¼Œæ–‡çŽ‹å°‡è¥¿ï¼Œæ‚Œå¾©æ›°ï¼šã€Œé¾æœƒæ‰€çµ±ï¼Œäº”å…å€æ–¼é„§è‰¾ï¼Œä½†å¯å‹‘æœƒå–è‰¾ï¼Œä¸è¶³è‡ªè¡Œã€‚ã€æ–‡çŽ‹æ›°ï¼šã€Œå¿å¿˜å‰æ™‚æ‰€è¨€é‚ªï¼Œè€Œæ›´äº‘å¯ä¸é ˆè¡Œä¹Žï¼Ÿé›–çˆ¾ï¼Œæ¤è¨€ä¸å¯å®£ä¹Ÿã€‚æˆ‘è¦è‡ªç•¶ä»¥ä¿¡ç¾©å¾…äººï¼Œä½†äººä¸ç•¶è² æˆ‘ï¼Œæˆ‘è±ˆå¯å…ˆäººç”Ÿå¿ƒå“‰ï¼è¿‘æ—¥è³ˆè·è»å•æˆ‘ï¼Œè¨€ï¼šã€Žé —ç–‘é¾æœƒä¸ï¼Ÿã€æˆ‘è…è¨€ï¼šã€Žå¦‚ä»Šé£å¿è¡Œï¼Œå¯§å¯å¾©ç–‘å¿é‚ªï¼Ÿã€è³ˆäº¦ç„¡ä»¥æ˜“æˆ‘èªžä¹Ÿã€‚æˆ‘åˆ°é•·å®‰ï¼Œå‰‡è‡ªäº†çŸ£ã€‚ã€è»è‡³é•·å®‰ï¼Œæœƒæžœå·²æ»ï¼Œå’¸å¦‚æ‰€ç–ã€‚)
vol. 28. Wei Guan, having taken control of Zhong Hui's forces, subsequently ordered the execution of Deng Ai and Deng Zhong for fear that they would seek retaliation against Wei Guan for his involvement in their capture. Following these events, Wei Guan returned to service under Sima Zhao, eventually serving under his son Sima Yan and the Jin dynasty, which he founded soon after.
In popular culture
The rebellion is featured in Chapter 119 of the historical novel
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
by Luo Guanzhong. A popular anecdote included in the novel concerning the rebellion is that when Jiang Wei was killed, his body was mutilated to expose the gall bladder (the traditional source of courage in Chinese culture,) which had swollen to a huge size, implying reckless foolishness â€” it is described with a phrase now used as a proverb: "è†½å¤§å¦‚æ–— gallbladder as big as a
(æ–—) is a traditional unit of volume measurement, approximately 10 cubic decimetres. His gallbladder was said to have been buried separately from his body, and a tomb stands in its purported burial place.China History Forum thread, "Three Kingdoms tombs". http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/3330-three-kingdoms-tombs/
Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms ( Sanguozhi) vol. 28, 44.
de Crespigny, Rafe.
The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin; a history of China in the Third Century AD (2003). Luo, Guanzhong.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms ( Sanguo Yanyi) ch. 118-119. Pei, Songzhi.
Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms ( Sanguozhi zhu).
Zhong Hui's Rebellion 264