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Draft Ladislav Trakal

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Ladislav Trakal ((czech. Ladislav Trakal, rus. Ладислав Иосифович Тракал, ukr. Ладіслав Йосипович Тракал) June 27, 1873, Debrzh, Kingdom of Bohemia, Austria-Hungary - June 1, 1951 Prague, Czech Republic) - Ukrainian, Russian and Czech painter, graphic artist , illustrator, designer and teacher. One of the most prominent representatives of Ukrainian Art Nouveau. Pioneer of Ukrainian symbolism. One of the founders of the Kharkov Art School. As a teacher, he brought up a whole galaxy of famous artists such as: V. Ermilov (1894-1968), B. Kosarev (1987-1994), V. Fiala (1896-1980), G. Tsapok (1896-1971).


Ladislav Trakal was born on June 27, 1873 in the Czech Republic, which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the city of Debrz in the Mlada Boleslav district . In the family of the teacher-director of the local school Joseph ( Josef ) Trakal and Josefa ( Josefa ) Trakalova . He received his first education at school from his father. Afterwards, he went to the Imperial Gymnasium, where he studied drawing with T. Scheller .
In 1889 he moved to Prague, from 1889 to 1892 he studied at the Imperial Higher Real Gymnasium, general subjects and drawing, which he chose at will. From the very childhood he felt a desire for art, he grew up in an intelligent family. The eldest of his brothers, Joseph ( Josef ), was a renowned lawyer, assistant professor of philosophy and law at Charles University in Prague. Another older brother Karel was an assistant professor of the Department of Philology, a teacher of various languages, he taught LadislavRussian. Brother Augustine, instilled in the young artist a sense of style, he was also a teacher of drawing, but he devoted most of his time to work in the architectural direction. By the time he entered the Industrial School of Arts (now the Higher School of Applied Arts) in Prague, Ladislav Trakal had a serious store of knowledge and skills and was very different from his peers. His teachers in various courses were Emanuel Krescenc Liska (1852-1903), Stanislav Sucharda (1866-1916), Anton Helméssen (1854-1930), Otakar Hostinský (1847-1910), Schmoranz Gustav (1858-1930), Stibral Jiří ( 1859-1939).
In 1895, the candidate received the title of professor, he entered the final 4th year, to the outstanding artists of the revival of the Czech Frantisek at Zhenishek at (František Ženíšek) (1849-1916) in the department of decorative painting and drawing . In 1896 , he completed his studies and practice, and also received the title of academic artist and professor. In the same year, he and his wife Olga have a son, Ladislav .
In 1897, Trakal and his family moved to Kharkov. For Trakal , the Russian Empire becomes a starting point for creative searches. He travels a lot outside of it, falls in love with Ukrainian nature, seeing it in a special way. Through the prism of your view of the world. He opens the Art Nouveau style for local artists. He receives a large number of orders for decorative and alfrey paintings. In November 1897, being with his family in Odessa, his wife Olga gives birth to her second son Augustine-Karl, who dies within a month. Later in 1898, Ladislav Iosifovicha invited to the opening of the Art and Handicraft th Scholastic oh ma Article ersk second decorative painting named Colonel Borodaevsky (later renamed the craft and drawing school) (with 1909. Was its director), teaching painting and composition, history and modeling of the ornament, as well as the history of the style. The school was his brainchild, and recognized throughout the entire Russian Empire. A. Benois, having visited it in 1904, ordered to present Trakal to the highest award of the Imperial Academy of Arts for his serious contribution to art education. Its graduates were many subsequently outstanding avant-garde artists such as: V. Ermilov (1894-1968), B. Kosarev (1987-1994), V. Fiala (1896-1980), G. Tsapok (1896-1971) , and others ... The main task of the school was to train designers and decorators, artisans and alfreshchiks . The school became an analogy to the Prague School of Industrial Art, of which Trakal was a graduate . And in its way it was a unique educational institution that was able to teach European art, and especially Modern, which in those years so rapidly conquered the vastness of the continent.
From the first years of his life and work in Kharkov, Trakal managed to make a strong impression on local critics with his symbolistic works. He masterfully painted portraits and landscapes. Trakala's students painted buildings according to his sketches in the Art Nouveau style.
Ladislav Iosifovich participated in exhibitions of a circle of local artists (1901-1908), in the creation of the Association of Kharkov Artists and its exhibitions ( 1905-1916), was the ideological leader of the society. Organized cultural evenings. He was tied by friendly relations with the great Ukrainian painter Sergei Ivanovich Vasilkovsky ( 1854 - 1917). Over the years of his life in Kharkov, he de facto made numerous reforms in art education, introduced a European progressive approach to art. One of the main teachings of Trakal was the appeal to the semantic load of his works. And the desire to teach your students the same.
A special style of the artist, which has gone from early Art Nouveau and Symbolism, with features of the era of Romanticism to his own decorative style. In his works, a combination of various stylistic features is observed. Fusion of impressionism and modernity, symbolism and expressionism. Works from the period from 1898 to 1910 are the best reflection of Art Nouveau in painting. The works written by Trakal in the period from 1910 to 1917, from the cycles of the light-shadow of life and the cycle of fairy tales, are an example of symbolism, rare for that time, and unique for all Ukrainian art. His works of a symbolistic nature, stylistically close to expressionism, years later will be taken as a basis by many artists futurists and cubo-futurists , associations " seven plus three " and artists close to them . The master worked in various techniques such as : oil , tempera , pastel , watercolor , charcoal , sanguine . He also developed his own technique, based on watercolors and pastels. In 1911, uchuvstvoval in Congress of Russian artists in St. Petersburg, together with his deputy AP Romanenko , as well as M. R. Pestrikov (1864 - 19, 30) and MP Kroshechkinym- Kroshitskogo (1870 - 1935) , where he gave lectures. In the same year, a competition was held to create a monument to T.G. Shevchenko in Kiev, to which he presented his project. After the revolution he continued to live and work in Kharkov, in 1919 he participated in the creation of the " Union of Arts " , and so collaborated with the magazine " Ways of Creativity " . In 1921, he was forced to emigrate to Prague with his wife. In 1922, already being in the Czech Republic, he applied to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Czech Republic for the repatriation of his son with his family and his artistic values ​​from Kharkov. A large number of works were transported to Prague, from the academic period to the works created during the entire period of residence in Kharkov, Odessa, Crimea and other cities. Having left Kharkov, he was very sad, but he could not return. It is not known for certain whether this was due to the final establishment of the communist regime, and to the fact that his son fought during the civil war on the side of the White Guard. Having settled in Prague, he was invited to teach painting and drawing at the Russian Pedagogical University of Ya.A. Komensky in Prague, where he opened his studio. He also collaborated with the Czechoslovak Military Scientific Institute at the Military Museum , which acquired from him works on the theme of the October Revolution and turned to Trakal for the restoration of especially important exhibits. In 1924 he signed a contract to work as a drawing teacher in the Czech th STATE th is real th school in Smíchov . Collaborated with the Czech Graphic Union, and the Art Factory " Frantisek Cermak " , on the production of stamps, cliches and stereotypes. In the period from 1922 to the 1930s he was engaged in illustrations of books and textbooks. Together with the Ukrainian emigrant from Kiev, writer Alfred Boehm ( 1886 - 1945) , he created and illustrated the first (1924) and the second (1926), Czech textbook on the Russian language. He also continued his teaching career, teaching a large number of artists, local and immigrants from the former Russian Empire. He created sketches for theatrical scenery, in the Art Deco style that was fashionable in those years . In 1927, together with other representatives of the emigration, and colleagues at the Russian Pedagogical University of Ya.A. Komensky in Prague, he participated in the congress of Russian scientists in Belgrade. In 1929 he was elected chairman of the "Circle of Friends" of the independent association of Czechoslovak legionaries , of which he was a member. In 1930 - 1933, Ladislav Iosifovich, together with his family, managed to visit the Soviet Union, Crimea. From 1939 to 1945, due to the German occupation of Prague, he and his family are going through difficult times, in 1943 he returned from the front from tuberculosis, his son Ladislav passed away. ... After the death of his son, almost completely, creative activity stops. June 1, 1951, the 78-year-old artist and his wife Olga pass away. They are discovered by relatives the next day. He is diagnosed with degenerative changes and fibrosis of the heart muscle, and she is diagnosed with sclerosis of the coronary arteries. Ladislava and Olga are buried in the Olshansky cemetery in Prague, the same grave with their son.


1873 - was born in the city of Debrz (70 km from Prague).
1879-1884 - received his primary education at a local school, the head of which was his father.
1884-1889 - studied at the Imperial Gymnasium in the town of Debr (General subjects and drawing at T. Sheller).
1889 - moved to Prague to study at the Imperial Higher Real Gymnasium (1890-1892. General subjects and drawing).
1892-1895 - finished 3 courses at the School of Art and Industry in Prague (now the Higher School of Applied Arts) of the department "Drawing and painting of figures and ornaments", where he studied with teachers: Emanuel Krescenc Liska (1852-1903), Stanislav Sucharda (1866 - 1916), Anton Helméssen (1854-1930), Otakar Hostinský (1847-1910 ), Schmoranz Gustav (1858-1930), Stibral Jiří (1859-1939) and others. Attended the studio of František Ženíšek (1849-1916). Received the title of candidate professor.
1893-1896 - paints commissioned portraits, and is also engaged in painting interiors in Prague.
1893 - creates illustrations for fairy tales, participates in Hussite meetings, writes paintings of a religious and philosophical nature.
1895-1896 - graduated from the special, final (4th) course at the School of Art and Industry under Frantisek Zhenishek (1849-1916), Department of Decorative Painting and Drawing. He was individually engaged in figural and ornamental painting, as well as drawing buildings and figures, painting churches.
1896 - graduated from the School of Art and Industry and received the title of Academic Artist and Professor.
1896 - the birth of his son Ladislav and the wedding. 8
1897 - moved with his family to Kharkov, and from this year he accepts orders for decorative and alfrey paintings of interiors of buildings.
1897 - traveled to Odessa, where his second son Augustine-Karl was born and died within a month.
1898 - was invited to teach at the Art and Craft Training Workshop of Decorative Painting named after Colonel Borodaevsky (later renamed the Decorative and Drawing School). Works as a teacher of painting and composition, history and modeling of ornament, as well as history of styles.
1900 - he is engaged in painting the premises of the Grand Hotel Prosper on Pavlovskaya Square in Kharkov, as well as numerous other buildings in Kharkov, government and city estates.
1901 - participates in exhibitions "The Circle of Local Artists" (1900-1908).
1903 - bought a house next to the school at 21 Veterinarnaya Street (now 23 Svobody Street). He was awarded the highest award from the Imperial Academy of Arts for his great contribution to art education.
1903 - travels a lot across the vast empire.
1904 - bought another private house in Kharkov, near Pavlovka.
1904 - painted a picture in honor of the arrival of Emperor Nicholas II in Kharkov, depicting him on a horse. At the exhibition, the “Circle of Local Artists” made a tremendous impression on the Kharkiv public with its Symbolist works and received flattering reviews from Kharkiv critics.
1905 - participates in the creation of the "Association of Kharkov Artists" (hereinafter - TXH) as deputy chairman.
1905 - 1916 - participates in exhibitions of the THX, receives the best comments from critics.
1907 - from this year and in the future he often visits Crimea.
1908 - created and sent from the Decorative-Drawing School a congratulatory address to Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy for his 80th birthday.
1909 - was appointed director of the Decorative-Drawing School. By this time, de facto was considered the best teacher of fine arts in the Kharkov region.
During his work at the school from 1898 to 1916 he taught many later famous avant-garde artists such as V. Ermilov (1894-1968), B. Kosarev (1987-1994), V. Fiala (1896-1980), G. Tsapok (1896-1971) and others.
1909 - created a design and painting project for a restaurant in the "Prosper Grand Hotel", the most luxurious restaurant in Kharkov in those years.
1911 - took part in the All-Russian Congress of Artists in St. Petersburg, as well as in the competition for the creation of the monument to T. G. Shevchenko in Kiev.
1918 - created a design project for the house church in the mansion of the editor of the largest Kharkiv newspaper "Southern Territory" A. A. Yuzefovich.
During this period of his stay in Kharkov from 1897 to 1921 he created many symbolic works of a mystical nature, as well as a large number of portraits and landscapes reflecting the Art Nouveau era. He contributed to the Europeanization of Kharkov, inviting foreign artists and architects to Kharkov. He organized cultural meetings (evenings) to which he invited leading artists of the city.
1919 - participated in the creation of the "Union of Arts" and in its first exhibition. Collaborated with the journal "Ways of Creativity", which was designed by his student B. Kosarev (1987-1994). He published an article in which he detailed the goals and objectives of the Committee of the Union of Arts.
1921 - together with his family he was forced to emigrate to Prague.
1922 - applied to the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs for repatriation
his son with his family and his artistic treasures from Kharkov. He was invited to teach at the Russian Pedagogical Institute. Ya. A. Komensky in Prague, where he opened his studio.
1923 - cooperates with the Czechoslovak Military Scientific Institute at the Military Museum, where he is engaged in the restoration of especially valuable exhibits. The scientific institute acquired from him drawings reflecting the events of the October (Red) Revolution. Collaborates with the local theater, where his son plays the piano. Creates sketches of theatrical scenery.
1924 - teaches drawing at the Czech State Real School in Smichov (Prague region). Collaborates with the Czech Graphics Union and the Frantisek Cermak Art Factory for the production of stamps, cliches and stereotypes.
1924-1926 - engaged in illustrating the first and second textbooks of the Russian language in Prague.
1925 - cooperates with the firm of S. Kurka, creates drawings for advertising the printing press "Miniature".
He was and was elected chairman of the Circle of Friends Society of the Independent Association of Czechoslovak Legionnaires (as part of the Russian and French armies) who fought in the First World War for the independence of Czechoslovakia from Austria-Hungary, among whom was his son L. L. Trakal.
1927 - with representatives of the Russian and Ukrainian emigration participated in the congress of Russian scientists in Belgrade.
1930-1933 - visited Crimea with his family.
1939 - continued to teach and engage in creative activities.
1939-1945 - due to the German occupation of Prague, going through difficult times, artistic activity is almost completely stopped.
194 3 - death of L. L. Trakal's son.
1951 - Ladislav Iosifovich Trakal and his wife Olga died. They were buried with their son at the Olshansk cemetery in Prague.


80 years after the death of Ladislav Iosifovich Trakal, thanks to the efforts of the researcher and collector Yakov Skulsky, the artist's heirs were found living in Prague.
The stages of his creative and life path were restored and the artistic heritage was systematized. On October 2, 2020, a full-scale exhibition of the artist's works " Return in a Hundred Years, Ladislav Trakal - Artist and Teacher " was opened in Kharkov .
And also there was a presentation of scientific research, the monograph by Y.M.Skulsky - " Ladislav Trakal - Artist and Teacher " .
  • S46 // Y.M.Skulsky // LADISLAV TRAKAL. PAINTER AND TEACHER / Monograph about the artist. Kharkov: publishing house FLP Panov A.N., 2020. 160 с. 303 ill. //
  • :uk:Тракал Ладіслав Йосипович

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